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We present a model for Bayesian filtering (BF) in discrete dynamic systems where multiple entities (inter)-act, i.e. where the system dynamics is naturally described by a Multiset rewriting system (MRS). Typically, BF in such situations is computationally expensive due to the high number of discrete states that need to be maintained explicitly.
We devise a lifted state representation, based on a suitable decomposition of multiset states, such that some factors of the distribution are exchangeable and thus afford an efficient representation. Intuitively, this representation groups together similar entities whose properties follow an exchangeable joint distribution. Subsequently, we introduce a BF algorithm that works directly on lifted states, without resorting to the original, much larger ground representation.
This algorithm directly lends itself to approximate versions by limiting the number of explicitly represented lifted states in the posterior. We show empirically that the lifted representation can lead to a factorial reduction in the representational complexity of the distribution, and in the approximate cases can lead to a lower variance of the estimate and a lower estimation error compared to the original, ground representation.