O. Giménez and A. Jonsson (2009) "Planning over Chain Causal Graphs for Variables with Domains of Size 5 Is NP-Hard", Volume 34, pages 675-706

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Recently, considerable focus has been given to the problem of determining the boundary between tractable and intractable planning problems. In this paper, we study the complexity of planning in the class C_n of planning problems, characterized by unary operators and directed path causal graphs. Although this is one of the simplest forms of causal graphs a planning problem can have, we show that planning is intractable for C_n (unless P = NP), even if the domains of state variables have bounded size. In particular, we show that plan existence for C_n^k is NP-hard for k>=5 by reduction from CNFSAT. Here, k denotes the upper bound on the size of the state variable domains. Our result reduces the complexity gap for the class C_n^k to cases k=3 and k=4 only, since C_n^2 is known to be tractable.

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